Doenças capilares: conheça as 5 principais e entenda a importância do dermatologista!

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Como uma extensão da pele, o couro cabeludo pode ser atingido por diversas patologias — as chamadas doenças capilares — para as quais existem tratamentos específicos, que devem ser prescritos por um dermatologista. 

Por serem bastante comuns, muitas vezes, não damos a devida importância aos sintomas, o que pode agravar o problema e até causar a perda definitiva dos fios. 

Por isso, neste post, eu apresento as cinco doenças capilares mais comuns, seus sintomas e tratamentos. Confira!

1. Psoríase

Caracterizada por vermelhidão e descamação esbranquiçada em todo o couro cabeludo, a psoríase causa bastante coceira e é frequentemente confundida com a dermatite seborreica. Trata-se se uma doença associada à herança genética, não sendo contagiosa. 

Pode ser tratada com loção anti-inflamatória (corticosteroides) e shampoo à base de alcatrão e ácido salicílico. Além disso, a exposição ao sol também é benéfica. 

2. Dermatite seborreica

Conhecida popularmente como caspa, consiste em oleosidade excessiva (seborreia), associada à inflamação e descamação. A doença pode acontecer em diversos níveis de gravidade e é a mais comum das doenças capilares. 

Comumente decorrente do estresse ou da presença de fungos, apresenta vermelhidão — em função da inflamação. Já a remoção de crostas formadas pela descamação pode deixar feridas. 

O tratamento é feito com shampoos anti-inflamatórios e antifúngicos, além dos próprios para a descamação. A seborreia não tratada pode potencializar outros problemas, como a alopécia androgenética. 

3. Foliculite queloideana

Trata-se de uma infecção crônica dos folículos pilosos da nuca, sendo mais comum em homens com tendência à acne. Quando manifesta-se com maior gravidade, podem ocorrer fibroses ou, mais raramente, cicatrizes queloides. 

Ainda não há terapias eficazes na eliminação do problema, no entanto, um médico pode recomendar corticoides para controle dos sintomas. 

4. Alopecia androgenética

A alopécia androgenética é a causa mais frequente de calvície masculina, porém também atinge mulheres. Causada pela sensibilidade do folículo piloso ao hormônio dihidro-testosterona, leva ao enfraquecimento dos fios, até que fiquem bem finos. Ela tem início entre a puberdade e a vida adulta, e se manifesta em diferentes graus. 

No homem, a queda de cabelo acontece gradualmente, começando pelas têmporas. Já na alopécia androgenética feminina, o cabelo vai se tornando mais fino e ralo apenas na parte frontal do couro cabeludo, dificilmente resultando em calvície total ou completa. 

A chamada calvície masculina pode ser amenizada com tratamento clínico, que envolve a administração de medicamentos inibidores da dihidro-testosterona ou que estimulam o crescimento de cabelo de maneira saudável. 

5. Alopecia areata

Nesse caso, a calvície resulta de uma doença autoimune: o organismo reconhece as próprias células como ameaça e as ataca, podendo estar associada ao vitiligo ou problemas da tireoide, por exemplo. 

A queda de cabelo se manifesta em clareiras circulares, tanto na cabeça quanto nas pernas e outras partes do corpo, até sobrancelhas e cílios.

Embora ainda não exista um tratamento efetivo para a doença, é possível recorrer a procedimentos estéticos e medicamentos que podem diminuir a intensidade do problema. 

Essas doenças causam bastante desconforto, além de afetarem a autoestima. Entretanto, há tratamentos específicos para cada uma delas,  capazes de resolver ou, pelo menos, minimizar os sintomas.

Porém, como todo problema de pele, as doenças capilares devem ser tratadas por um dermatologista, de preferência um especialista, como o dermatologista capilar

Agora que você já conhece os principais problemas capilares e está a procura de um bom profissional, entre em contato e agende uma consulta. 

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