alopecia areata alopecia areata

Alopecia areata: conheça os principais tratamentos para a doença

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A queda (afinamento e rarefação) de cabelo é um problema global, que não poupa idade nem gênero. Para termos uma ideia, nos Estados Unidos, estima-se que ela atinja 40% dos homens e mais de 20 milhões de mulheres. Também conhecida como alopecia ou calvície, ela é apenas um sintoma, portanto, pode ter diversas causas — e a alopecia areata é uma delas.

A seguir, falaremos tudo o que você precisa saber sobre essa doença, que se trata da ausência ou diminuição de pelos em alguma área do corpo, sendo o couro cabeludo a principal região afetada. Se você tem notado uma queda maior nos seus fios ou pelos, é hora de descobrir se está com alopecia areata. Continue lendo para saber mais!

O que é a alopecia areata?

O termo areata significa, em tradução literal, “irregular”. Esse nome é dado à doença porque a queda de cabelo ou pelos é geralmente localizada, sem um padrão claramente definido. Ela tem vários estágios de gravidade, podendo atingir apenas uma área específica, múltiplos locais ou até mesmo todos os pelos do corpo. Contudo, como citamos no início, na maioria dos casos a alopecia areata é uma lesão única, acometendo apenas uma área do corpo — sendo a região mais acometida a da cabeça.

Atualmente, acreditamos que essa doença ocorre devido a uma autoimunidade. Isso significa que as células de defesa do organismo, especializadas em atacar micro-organismos e agentes invasores, começam a atacar o próprio corpo. No caso da alopecia areata, isso ocorre no folículo capilar, predispondo o fio à queda.

Ainda não se sabe completamente a causa dessa autoimunidade: alguns casos de alopecia areata estão relacionados ao estresse, mas eles podem surgir espontaneamente. Também é possível que ela tenha relação com outras doenças autoimunes, como problemas de tireoide ou diabetes.

Qual é o tratamento?

O tratamento da alopecia areata varia conforme a gravidade, a área acometida e o estado de saúde. Em alguns casos, pode haver remissão espontânea da doença; mesmo nessas situações, ela ainda pode recorrer, especialmente em crianças. Quando se opta pelo tratamento, existem algumas modalidades disponíveis.

Medicamentos

O objetivo do tratamento da alopecia areata com medicamentos é reduzir o ataque das células de defesa, com medicamentos que controlam a inflamação e a imunidade exagerada. Eles podem ser prescritos por via oral ou tópica, dependendo da área acometida. Alguns exemplos são corticoides, como a prednisona, ou imunomoduladores mais potentes, como o tacrolimus.

Injeções

Em algumas situações, é possível injetar o medicamento diretamente na lesão, aumentando sua eficácia. Esses remédios apresentam a mesma ação dos que mencionamos anteriormente.

Fototerapia

Uma modalidade que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizada é a fototerapia. Seu princípio se baseia na emissão de raios laser de baixa potência ou luz de LED que estimulam a regeneração da pele e o crescimento do folículo piloso. Na maioria das situações, a fototerapia é associada a outros tratamentos.

Como saber se estou com alopecia areata?

A queda de fios tem múltiplas causas — fatores metabólicos, genéticos, nutricionais e farmacológicos estão associados ao desenvolvimento dos sintomas. Em grande parte das vezes, a perda de cabelos ou outros pelos nesses cenários é muito similar. Por isso, a ajuda profissional é sempre recomendada.

A dermatologia é a especialidade médica que lida com a pele, com os pelos e com as unhas. Um profissional da área pode examinar sua queda pela tricoscopia ou solicitar mais exames, que sirvam para auxiliar o diagnóstico. A partir daí, com base no quadro clínico, o tratamento é direcionado.

Enfim… a alopecia areata é um problema frequente, que causa queda de cabelo em homens e mulheres. Atualmente, acredita-se que sua principal causa é a autoimunidade, mas, para tratá-la com segurança, uma visita ao dermatologista é a melhor saída.

Em Belo Horizonte, uma opção é a Dra. Amanda Gomes. Dermatologista e especializada em tratamentos capilares, ela também tem mestrado em calvície feminina, atuando também nessa área. Para tirar suas dúvidas, marque hoje mesmo uma consulta!

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